I. Re viewing the Bilateral Political Relations.
Pakistan is one of the first groups of countries that have recognized China. On May 21, 1951, the two countries officially established their diplomatic relations. Since then, China and Pakistan have witnessed smooth development of friendly and neighborly relations as well as mutually beneficial cooperation.
1) In the early years of the establishment of Sino-Padistani diplomatic relations, Pakistan maintained cool relations with China, as it was an ally of the West. Due to little interactions between the two countries, their relations only remained general. During the Bandung Conference in 1995, Premier Zhou Enlai held two friendly talks with Pakistani Prime Minister M. Ali, and both sides shared the view that exchange and cooperation in various areas should be strengthened between the two countries. The talks played an important role in promoting understanding and developing friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries. After the Bandung Conference, there was a gradual increase of high-level exchanges of visits between the two countries, In October 1956, at the invitation of the Chinese Government, Pakistani Prime Minister Sulawadi paid an official visit to China. In December the same year, Premier Zhou Enlai visited Pakistan. The successful exchange of visits between the Pakistani prime minister and Chinese Premier within one year greatly promoted the development of friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries and strengthened the friendship between the two peoples.
2) The period between 1957 and 1069 saw a very important phase in the history of the Sino-Pakistani relations. During this period, historical changes took place in the bilateral relations, and the change of Pakistan from being hostile toward to friendly with China opened a new chapter in the Sino-Pakistani relations.
Between 1957 and 1960, Pakistan followed the West with regard to its position on restoration of China's legal status in the UN, and Taiwan Tibet questions, so the political relations between the two countries were setback. In 1961, by voting for the bill concerning the restoration of China's legitimate rights in the UN put to the vote the UN General Assembly, the Pakistani Government took a step forward in the course of improving the Sino-Pakistani relations. In 1962, the two countries, through friendly talks, reached an agreement in principle on the position and alignment of Sino-Pakistani boundary. In March 1963, the two countries signed a boundary agreement on China's Xinjiang and the adjacent areas whose defence was under the actual control of Pakistan. In February 1964, Premier Zhou Enlai visited Pakistan and in December Pakistani President Ayub Khan visited China. In March 1966, President Liu Shaoqi visited Pakistan. Between 1965 and 1971, as a sponsor country for the aforesaid bill Pakistan supported the restoration of China's legitimate fights in the UN.
3) 1970s saw steady development of the Sino-Pakistani relations and continuous strengthening of friendly cooperation between the two governments and peoples.
In November 1970, Pakistani President Yahay Khan visited China. While in power, Z.A.Bhutto visited China three times respectively in 1972, 1974 and 1976. In November 1974, CAAC opened its Beijing-Karachi-Paris flight. After coming into power, Zia-ul Huq visited China in December 1977.
4) 1980s witnessed frequent exchange of visits between the Chinese and Pakistani leaders and further consolidation and development of friendly relations and cooperation between the tow countries.
In May 1980,Pakistani President Zia-ul Huq visited China. In June 1981, Premier Zhao Ziyang visited Pakistan. In August 1982,the two countries signed the protocol on opening Khunjerab Pass on the Sino-Pakistani border. In October the same year, President Zia-ul Huq visited China again. In March 1984,President Li Xiannian visited Pakistan. In November 1985, Pakistani Prime Minister Junejo visited China. In June 1987, Premier Zhao Zhiyang visited Pakistan again. In May 1988, Prime Minister Junejo paid another visit to China. In February 1989, Pakistani Prime Minister B.Bhutto visited China, and in November Premier Li Peng visited Pakistan.
5) Since 1990s, great changes have taken place in the international situation. Instead of being affected by the changing situation, the time-tested friendship and cooperation between China and Pakistan has further developed.
In May 1990s, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Wan Li visited Pakistan. In September the same year Pakistani President Ishaq Khan visited China and attended the 11th Asian Games as the chief guest. In February 1991, Pakistani Prime Minister Shariff visited China, and in October President Yang Shangqun visited Pakistan. In October 1992, Prime Minister Shariff visited China again. In December 1993, Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Li Ruihuan visited Pakistan, and in the same month Prime Minister B.Bhutte paid another visit to China. In December 1994, Pakistans President Leghari visited China. In September 1995, invited by the Chinese Government Prime Minister B.Bhutte attended the 4th World Women Conference sponsored by the UN in Beijing ad a special guest. In November the same year, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Qiao Shi visited Pakistan. In December 1996, President Jiang Zemin, invited by Pakistan, paid a state visit to the country. It is a big event in the Sino-Pakistani relations and the leaders of the two countries decided to establish an all-round cooperative partnership into the 21st century. President Jiang Zemin made an important speech entitled Carrying Forward Friendly and Neighborly Relations from Generation to Generation, and Working together for a Better Tomorrow during his visit to Pakistan, a expounding for the first time China's policy toward South Asia. In April 1997, President Leghari visited China. In February 1998, Prime Minister Sharif visited China. In April 1999, Chairman Li Peng of the Standing Committee of the NPC visited Pakistan. In June the same year, Prime Minister Sharif visited China again. In January 2000, Pakistan's Chief Executive General Musharraf paid a working visit to China. In September the same year President Jiang Zemin met him during the UN Millennium Summit held in New York.
2001 marked the 50th anniversary of the establishment of Sino-Pakistani diplomatic relations and colorful celebrations were held in the two countries. In May the same year, Premier Zhu Rongji was invited to visit Pakistan. In December, President Musharraf paid a state visit to China. In January 2002, he made a stopover in Beijing on his way to Nepal to attend the SAARC Summit. In March the same year Vice-Premier Wu Bangguo visited Pakistan as head of a Chinese Government delegation and attended the groundbreaking ceremony of Gwadar Port, a joint project to be built by China and Pakistan. In May, Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan visited Pakistan. In early June, President Jiang Zemin met President Musharraf at Alma-Ata during the CICA Summit. At the end of June, Pakistani Foreign Minister of State Haque visited China. In early August, while President Musharraf was in Beijing for a stopover after visiting Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, President Jiang Zemin met him. In January, 2003, Pakistani Speaker Hussain called on Chairman of the Standing Committee of the NPC Li Peng while attending the meeting of the Executive Council of AAPP held in Beijing. In February the same year, Foreign Secretary Khokhar visited China. In March, Prime Minister Jamali paid an official visit to China, and during his visit he and the Chinese Premier jointly announced the founding of China-Pakistan Friendship Forum.
II. Economic and Trade Relations and Economic Cooperation.
Since the early 1950, China and Pakistan have established trade relations and started trade transactions. In January 1963, they signed their first trade agreement. In October 1982, China-Pakistan Joint Committee of Economy, Trade and Technology was set up. With the joint efforts from both sides, Sino-Pakistani economic and trade cooperation has seen good progress. Especially since the 1990s, their bilateral trade volume has witnessed relatively fast growth. In 2002 alone, Sino-Pakistani trade volume reached US$ 1.8 billion, a new record in terms of their trade relations.
Statistical Chart for Sino-Pakistani Trade (unit: million US dollars)
Year Total Exports Imports Balance
1996 963.75 621.48 342.27 279.21
1997 1067.0 688.00 379.00 309.00
1998 913.00 524.00 389.00 135.00
1999 971.00 581.00 390.00 191.00
2000 1162.00 670.00 492.00 178.00
2001 1397.00 815.00 582.00 233.00
2002 1800.00 1242.00 558.00 684.00
(Statistics from China General Administration of Customs)
III. Bilateral Exchanges and Cooperation In Culture, Sci-Technology and Education
1) Cultural Exchanges between China and Pakistan
Being always friendly to each other, China and Pakistan have kept close contacts in the cultural field. Since the establishment of Sino-Pakistani diplomatic relations, the two countries have sent cultural delegations and groups and held exhibitions in the other. In March 1965, the representatives from the Chinese and Pakistani Governments signed the cultural agreement in Rawalpindi and for the first time inked the plan of annual cultural exchanges for implementation. There have been 9 such plans signed between the two countries.
2) Scientific and Technological Cooperation between China and Pakistan areas. Their cooperation in these areas has been fruitful. Along with the sustained development of their friendly relations, Sino-Pakistani cooperation in science and technology has grown in depth, which developed from individually independent exchanges into inter-governmental cooperation like that of joint committee of science and technology. Since signing the agreement on cooperation in science and technology in 1976, the Chinese and Pakistani Governments have held 15 meetings and signed 417 inter-governmental cooperation progress science and technology.
IV. Important Bilateral Agreements and Documents
1) The Boundary Agreement on Xinjiang China, and the Adjacent Areas
whose Defence is under Actual Control of Pakistan.
2) President Jiang Zemin's Speech delivered in Islamabad during his State visit to Pakistan in December 1996.